DUERINCK’S CELTIC TRIBES PORTAL
Last revised on May 3, 2004. Constructive feedback is always welcome.
Note: Brythonic (p-Celtic): a Celtic language which is a branch of the Indo-European languages, out of which came Welsh, Cornish and Breton
Goidelic (q-Celtic): a Celtic language which is a branch of the Indo-European language, out of which came Irish, Scots Gaelic and Manx Gaelic.
The Belgae Confederation is not added here, although some tribes that made up the Belgae Confederation are listed here. The Belgae Confederation is seen more as a hybrid of germanic and celtic groups, possibly a hybrid language as well, but the jury is out on the language:Aedui: "Gallic" tribe, became friends of Rome. "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (page 46)
Boii: a Celtic tribe from the area known as (Pannonia) Bohemia, which is now Austria, Hungary. The Boii were also found in Germany.
Dardani(?): - Romania
Dalmatae/Delmate(?): - Croatia
Allobroges: "Gallic" tribe, lived south and east on the Rhone River during the 2nd century BC. Fought the Romans in 122 BC. "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (page 46). Mentioned by Strabo [Strabo 4,1,11] as living in the "Alps" and "Vienne". "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (page 117)
Arverni: "Gallic" tribe west of Rhone River. In 121 BC Arvernian King Bituitus was defeated by the Romans. "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (page 46)
Helvetii: - Celtic-Germanic inhabitants of what is now Switzerland. Julius Caesar mentioned them in his "De Bello Gallico".
Nervii: listed as a germanic tribe by Caesar; see Belgae. Extremely warlike, as the Romans found out at the Battle of the Sambre in 57 BC, where the Nervii fought to the death. Listed as a "Gallic" (i.e. "Celtic") tribe by "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (page 83). At the time of Caesar they lived in Gallia Belgica, with the Menapii and Morini to their north and west, respectively, and the Eburones and Aduatuci to the east. [Source: "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993), map page 119]
Parisii: - central France, as in what is now "Paris"
Sequani: "Gallic" tribe. "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (page 46)
Veneti: - France
Britain [also many had roots in Continental Europe]
Atrebates: A Celtic tribe, also known as a "Gallic" tribe in "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (listed as a germanic tribe by Caesar--who wasn't?). One of the Atrebatic kings was Commius, King of the Gallic Atrebates, who migrated to Britain. One of the Atrebatic princes, Verica, defected to Rome sometime before the summer of 43 AD. It is presumed that his successor was King Cogidubnus. [Source: "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993)] The Atrebates minted a quarter stater coin in 60-40 BC, found mainly in West Sussex, Surrey, Hampshire, Berkshire and Oxfordshire. [Source: Celtic Coin Index; see also BEAN, S.C., "The Coinage of Atrebates and Regni" (Studies in Celtic Coinage, number 4, 2000)]
Brigantes: Queen Cartimandua betrayed to the Romans the Catuvellaunian prince Caratacus in 52 AD. After 60 or 61 AD there was a civil war among the Brigantes. [Source: "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993)].
Caledonii: A Celtic tribe in northern Britain. A Caledonian leader was Calgacus, who was defeated by the Romans under Roman Governor Agricola at Mons Graupius circa 83 AD. Tacitus and Dio Cassius both mention Caledonians.The Romans called what would become Scotland as "Caledonia".
Cantii ("Cantium"): great coins! [Source: Celtic Coin Index]
Catuvellauni: The first Catuvellaunian prince/king to have a taste of fighting major Roman forces invading Britain was Cassivellaunus. In 55 BC Caesar invaded, and he returned in 54 BC, running into a coalition of hostile forces under Cassivellaunus. Caesar prevailed. Meanwhile, the Catuvellauni had incorporated the Trinovantes (around 10 AD) to their east and thus became more powerful. The prince who had accomplished all of this, Cunobelinus, however, perished in 40-41 AD, leaving a power struggle between 3 sons: Caratacus, Togodumnus and Adminius (he fled to Rome). The next big Roman invasion force was in 43 AD under Claudius. The 2 sons, princes Caratacus and Togodumnus, led the resistance. Togo died, but Caratacus continued fighting as a war leader amongst the Welsh tribes (see Silures, Ordovices), being betrayed in 52 AD by Queen Cartimandua of the Brigantes. He was sent to Rome, being spared by Claudius. [Source: "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993)]. The Catuvellaunians had great coins! [Source: Celtic Coin Index]
Corieltauvi (Coritani): great coins! [Source: Celtic Coin Index]
Cornovii: an early pre-Roman (and Roman) Celtic tribe that lived in north central Wales. Viroconium (Wroxeter) was a large population center of the Cornovii. See "A History of Wales" by John Davies (1993).
Deceangeli: Celtic tribe in the north of Wales during Roman times. Fell pretty quickly to the Roman legions. See "A History of Wales" by John Davies (1993).
Demetae: Celtic tribe in the southwest of Wales during Roman times. Fell pretty quickly to the Roman legions. See "A History of Wales" by John Davies (1993).
Dobunni: a tribe whose lands were from Wiltshire across the Severn Valley. They had a massive earthworks at Bagendon in the Gloucestershire Cotswolds, with a large complex and hillfort up the valley at "The Ditches", built in the first century BC. [Source: "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993)]. Had coinage. [Book: "The Coinage of the Dobunni" by Robert D.Van Arsdell (1994, Oxford University Commitee for Archaeology England)]
Durotriges: great coins! [Source: Celtic Coin Index]
Iceni: Around 50 AD the Iceni were led by Prasutagus. Ah, who can forget Queen Boudica, queen of the Iceni, and her 2 daughters. The Boudican Revolt in East Anglia was around 60 or 61 AD. [Source: "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993)]. The Iceni had some great coins. [Source: Celtic Coin Index]
Ordovices: an early pre-Roman (and Roman) Celtic tribe that lived in northeast Wales. A Catevellaunian prince, Carataucus, one of the sons of Cubobelinus, fled to the Ordovices who then took up arms against the Romans. They were defeated by the Romans in 51 AD. Notable Ordovician areas were Anglesey and Caernarfon. See "A History of Wales" by John Davies (1993).
Parisii: a tribal name known in Gaul (around what would become Paris) as well as east Yorkshire. The burial rites do not support a connection between the two tribes. The Gallic tribe buried the complete vehicle and the body was not flexed, while in Britain the body was flexed and the vehicle dismantled. There are also issues as to the lack of "continental metalwork" in the British graves and no square barrows for the Gallic graves. "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993), page 102. Barry Cunliffe does not discuss the Parisii in his "The Ancient Celts" (1997).
Regnenses (Regni): for Regni coins, see BEAN, S.C., "The Coinage of Atrebates and Regni" (Studies in Celtic Coinage, number 4, 2000)
Silures: an early pre-Roman (and Roman) Celtic tribe that lived in southeast Wales. The Silures had a large population center (civitas) at Caerwent. A Catevellaunian prince, Carataucus, one of the sons of Cubobelinus, fled to the Silures who then took up arms against the Romans. While they defeated the Romans in 52 AD, the Romans eventually brought them under some type of control. Roman forts were built at what is now Gloucester and Usk. See "A History of Wales" by John Davies (1993).
Taxali (Taixali, Taezali)
Trinovantes: The Trinovantes were a Celtic tribe in east Britain (Essex) who were quickly incorporated/subjugated by the Catuvellauni circa 10 AD. The Trinovantes main population center was Camulodunum (Colchester). [Source: "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993)]. The Trinovantes had their own coinage. [Source: Celtic Coin Index]
Votadini: a Celtic tribe in Britain who had a kingdom located just east of Strathclyde. This area fell to the Romans. In post-Roman times, the area became known as Gododdin (Goutodin). A part was called Manaw Gododdin (an area between the Forth and Tyne). The Gododdin also displaced the Feni, a Welsh tribe, from northwest Wales. [Source: "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993)] page 167. Gododdin fell to the Angles in 638 AD.
Eravisci - Hungary
Scordisci - Hungary, Serbia
Tencteri: Driven from their lands by the Suebians, massacred by Julius Caesar's army in 55 BC. While Caesar artificially called them "Germans" because they were east of the Rhine, they were a Celtic tribe. See also Usipetes.
Trevi/Treverii: provided Caesar with his best cavalry. After Caesar's successful campaigns in Gaul, the Treveri were forcefully integrated into the Roman Empire, thereby losing not only their political independence but their cultural identity as well. Following the failure of the uprising of 54/53 B.C. the leading families of the Treveri are reported to have crossed the Rhine, to settle among the Germanic tribes. It is interesting to note, on the issue of whether the Treverii were celtic or germanic, that there has been no ceramic evidence to point to a germanic relation. [Source: The Prehistory of Germanic Europe by Herbert Schutz (1983)]. At the time of Caesar the Treveri lived in Gallia Belgica, with the Eburones and Aduatuci to their north, and the Mediomatrici to their south. [Source: "The World of the Celts" by Simon James (1993), map page 119]
Ubii - Belgium, Germany [Germanic vs. Celtic tribe?]
Usipetes: Driven from their lands by the Suebians, massacred by Julius Caesar's army in 55 BC. While Caesar artificially called them "Germans" because they were east of the Rhine, they were a Celtic tribe. See also Tencteri.
Germanic Tribes Portal
Turingii Tribe Portal
Duerinck's History of the Franks
De Excidio Thuringiae
Barbarian timeline and scorecard--by tribe
History of Wales
Celtic Coin Index
Early Germanic Laws ("1911 Edition Encyclopedia")
M.I.T.'s Internet Classics Archive ("The Gallic Wars" by Julius Caesar)
Rutgers University's Concordance on De Bello Gallico by Julius Caesar (in Latin--helps when searching for what book a tribe is mentioned in, then go to MIT's archive URL above)
The Labyrinth (Resources for Medieval Studies: Georgetown University)
Florilegium (Canadian annual journal devoted to the ancient and medieval cultures of Europe, North Africa, and the Near East)
Yahoo Germanic-L List (Early Germanic Peoples from Prehistory to circa 800 AD)
Yahoo Anglii List (early English history on the continent and in Britain; not just the Angles but also the Saxons, Jutes, Frisians and others)
Root sweb Medieval Genealogy Message Board
GenForum Medieval Forum Message Board
Ancient Worlds Boards
Archaeological Resource Guide for Europe
ArchNet (World Wide Web Virtual Library for Archaeology)
Anthro.Net (Anthropology on the World Wide Web)
Anthro.Net (Roman History)
The History Of The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire (by Edward Gibbon; etext)
"Getica", or "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths" (by Jordanes, translated by Charles C. Mierow; etext). Jordanes wrote this summary of Cassiodorus' much longer treatment (a lost work) of the history of the Goths).
European medieval maps (excellent maps 530, 565, 600 A.D.)
"Heimskringla" or "The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway" [by Snorri Sturluson (c. 1179 - 1241) (Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b)]
Ptolemy's Geographia Book 4
Ptolemy's Geographia Book 5
Ptolemy's Geographia Book 6 (Gaul)
Ptolemy's Geographia Book 7 (Germania)
Ptolemy's Geographia Book 8 (Danube Provinces)
Host Kingdom's German Tribes and Rulers
Roman's Online, tribes and links galore
Roman Place Names
WWW Virtual Library History Index for Medieval Europe
Dr. J. Douglas McDonald's maps of "Y Haplogroups of the World", "Y Haplogroups of Europe", and "mtDNA Haplogroups of the World" (Thank you!)
Y Chromosone Evidence for Anglo Saxon Mass Migration (2002) (pdf file)
Y Chromosone Census of the British Isles (pdf file)
Alu Insertion Polymorphisms and the Genetic Structure of Human Populations from the Caucasus (Nasidze, Stoneking, et al.)
mtDNA and the Islands of the North Atlantic: Estimating the Proportions of Norse and Gaelic Ancestry (Helgason, et al.)
Family Tree DNA Library (library of research papers)
"The World of the Celts" by Simon James (Thames and Hudson, 1993)
"The Ancient Celts" by Barry Cunliffe (1997)
"The Prehistory of Germanic Europe" by Herbert Schutz (1983)
"The Germanic Realms in Pre-Carolingian Central Europe" by Herbert Schutz (Peter Lang Publishing, 2000)
More coming soon...
"Exploring the World of the Celts" by Simon James (Thames and Hudson, 1998)
*"Atlas of the Celtic World" by John Haywood, introduction by Barry Cunliffe (Thames & Hudson, 2001). Text with many maps, graphics, and photos.
"Historical Atlas of the Celtic World" by Angus Konstam (2001, 2003 both hardcover)
"Celtic World : An Illustrated History of the Celtic Race, Their Culture, Customs & Legends" by Barry Cunliffe (1986, reissue)
"The Celtic World" by Barry Cunliffe (many different dates & ISBN's, 1979, 1990, 1992 hardcover)
"The Atlantic Celts: Ancient People or Modern Invention?" by Barry Cunliffe (Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1999, trade paperback)
"Die Kelten und ihre Geschichte" by Barry Cunliffe, arranged by ("Gestaltet von") Emil M. Bührer (1980)
"The Illyrians" by John Wilkes (Blackwell Publishers, 1992) ISBN: 0631198075
"Dalmatia" by John Wilkes (1969)
Copyright © 2004-2007 Kevin F. Duerinck